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» TB Treatment
1
Initial Intensive Phase for about 2 months, in which the Fever stops,the coughing reduces,apetite increases and the patient gains weight. After this the patient is not a Danger to the society BUT HE IS STILL A PATIENT.

Do not stop treatment after this.
2 Continuation Phase for about 4 to 6 more months so that all the TB 'germs' die and patient is TB-FREE.

If the treatment is STOPPED after the first phase then the TB Bacteria becomes resistent to the medicine and patient needs to be given higher and costlier dose of medicine for longer period of time with uncertainity of cure with possible side effects.
Alarming Signs of TB
• Persistent Cough
• Low Grade Fever
• Loss of Apetite
• Loss of Weight
• Coughing of Blood
 
How TB Spreads:
TB is an Air-Borne Disease .It spreads through
• Coughing
• Sneezing
• Over Crowded Trains
• Poorly Ventilated House
 

TB stands for Tubercle Bacilli, germs causing a disease called 'TUBERCULOSIS'. In olden days it was called as 'RAJYAKSHMA', the king of disease.TB affects Lungs, Meninges (Cover of the Brain), Intestines, Bones, Kidneys etc.

Tuberculosis is the first disease upsurged with this Universe and is even today the prime killer in our country.  At anytime 20 million people suffer from it while 3 million people die from this dreaded disease every year. Tuberculosis is a major killer today in developing countries.Early detection and proper treatment itself can substantially reduce the spread and misery.

In recent years the T.B. bacteria (Micobacterium tuberculosis) has transformed into more virulent form and is becoming resistant to number of available antibiotics. Out of two regimes recommended by WHO, the primary one  running into 6 to 8 months while the secondary line of treatment, which is expensive, goes for 18 months to 2 years costing Rs. 90,000 to Rs.1,50,000. Hence socially and economically backward patients generally leave the prescribed course of medicines half way.

Who gets TB:
  Any one. But certain people are at risk, like children, elderly, Alcoholics, Homeless, Medical Workers, People suffering from AIDS, Diabetes etc.

Anti-TB drugs are to be used for 6-9 months to completely cure a non-resistant case. Resistant cases require 18-24 months treatment.

Usually, within 1-2 months of starting treatment, patient starts feeling better and can resume his normal routine. If he discontinues his treatment at this time, he will re-activate the disease.
Preventive Measures:
  Detect the patients spreading the disease and put them under effective treatment, secondly, by giving BCG vaccine to all children.
How to Stop Spread of TB by a TB Patient:
 
  1. He should take the treatment fully and regularly
  2. He should eat nutritious food
  3. He should cover his face while coughing,sneezing or spitting.
  4. He should not spit in public places and should spit in a spitoon and burn it off
  5. He should stop smoking,alcohol,tobbaco or any other addiction
  6. He should not come in Close contact with anyone till he is TB-FREE
  7. He should listen to his Doctor's Advice.
Social & Economic Consequences:
  Our country carries about 25% of load of all TB patients of the world - about 10 million. Only about 30% of these go to dispensaries. Even when the disease is detected and the patients are put under effective treatment and cured, 2 million new patients are added every financial year. Because of poverty and other financial set backs, many patients start treatment and stop prematurely, while others are not in any position to start at all. Hence the picture is very bleak.

Government agencies cannot reach the grass root level where NGOs play a very important role. NGOs because of their credibility are better accepted by the society, are doing and keep continuing to do such yeomen work.
Available Armaments to fight T. B.:
  At present we have drugs like Rifampicen, Ethambutol, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, Streptomycin, Ciprofloxacin, Roxythromycin, Kanamycin, PAS, Ethinamid, Cycloserin, Sparfloxacen.

First 5 drugs are primary ones where duration of treatment is 6 to 9 months but is uncertain, while rest are used in the treatment of Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR) T.B. cases. Where duration of treatment is 12 to 18 months. The treatment is very expensive costing about Rs.90,000 to Rs.1,50,000 and still it is uncertain and has few side effects as well.

Total patient's compliance is must for successful outcome.Good personal hygiene manners (like covering mouth, not spitting on roads etc.), maintaining surrounding clean & BCG vaccination will help long way in preventing T.B. from spreading.

T.B. is a disease, where patient's active participation in the management of it is of paramount importance.
TB Fact File
 
  • TB is the prime killer in India (5,00,000 deaths per year)
  • TB bacteria, not only kills one patient, but also his whole family - economically.
  • According to WHO figures, our country carries 25% of load of total TB patients of the world.
  • 22 children of every 100 TB Patients suffer from TB.
  • TB kills more women than all the combined causes of Maternal morality.
  • TB kills one million women every year and 1,00,000 children.
Take Home Message
 
  1. TB is almost 100% curable.
  2. Excellent medicine are now available.
  3. Treatment must be taken for 6 months.
  4. Never interrupt treatment.
  5. Home treatment is OK.
  6. TB does not run in family.
  7. Only TB of lungs can cause infection to others.

 

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