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» Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis is the first disease upsurged with this Universe and is even today the prime killer in our country.  At anytime 20 million people suffer from it while 3 million people die from this dreaded disease every year. Tuberculosis is a major killer today in developing countries.Early detection and proper treatment itself can substantially reduce the spread and misery.
 
» T.B. Bacteria
 
In recent years the T.B. bacteria(Micobacterium tuberculosis) has transformed into more virulent form and is becoming resistant to number of available antibiotics. Out of tworegimes recommended by WHO, the primary one running into 6 to 8 months while the secondary line of treatment,which is expensive, goes for18 2 years costing Rs. 90,000 to Rs.1,50,000. Hence socially and economically backward patients generally leave the prescribed course of medicines half way.


The Spread Of Disease :

  • This can take place through droplets, whenever a person suffering from the disease emitting  T.B. Bacilli,spits or sneezes,or laughs or coughs. The particles getting suspended in the air are full of T.B. Bacilli. Other healthy persons inhale the same air and get affected. It should be remembered that once this tiny bacillus enters human body through inhalation or infected droplet, it can affect any organ of the body right from middle ear to bone. But if the person getting infected is having good health, one can fight back the infection.

  • Another way of getting easily infected is milk which is not boiled or not pasteurized. T.B. germs from cows or buffaloes also can cause tuberculosis in man.



    Prevention :

  • Covering the mouth while sneezing or coughing by every person, but specially if a person is suffering from T.B.

  • Not spitting anywhere inadvertently by the person suffering from TB. Normal air current present in the room,can keep this organisms air borne.

  • Boiling the milk before drinking.

  • Having good health can help prevent the spread of the disease there by reducing the risk of infection.

  • Good ventilation. At least 20 air changes ( via cross ventilation) per hour to minimise the chance of spread.



    Available Armaments to Fight T.B. :

    At present we have drugs like Rifampicen, Ethambutol, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, Streptomycin, Ciprofloxacin, Roxythromycin, Kanamycin, PAS, Ethinamid, Cycloserin, Sparfloxacen.

    First 5 drugs are primary ones where duration of treatment is 6 to 9 months but is uncertain, while rest are used in the treatment of Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR) T.B. cases. Where duration of treatment is
    12 to 18 months. The treatment is very expensive costing about Rs.90,000 to Rs.1,50,000 and still it is uncertain and has few side effects as well.

    Total patient's compliance is must for successful outcome.Good personal hygiene manners (like covering mouth, not spitting on roads etc.), maintaining surrounding clean & BCG vaccination will help long way in preventing T.B. from spreading.

    T.B. is a disease, where patient's active participation in the management of it is of paramount importance.  

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